Bladder malacoplakia

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[edit] Discussion of Bladder malacoplakia

  • Malacoplakia is a rare chronic granulomatous condition that can affect any organ
  • The urinary tract being the most common system involved. Within the urinary tract, the bladder is the most frequently affected organ (40% of patients with malacoplakia)
  • Malacoplakia signifies soft plaque.
  • Female-to-male ratio of 4:1.
  • Peak occurrence is in middle age.
  • The disease is more common in patients with diabetes mellitus or in immunocompromised individuals (i.e acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or recent transplant recipients).

  • Presenting symptoms include gross hematuria and signs of urinary tract infection.
  • Malacoplakia is highly associated with Escherichia coli infection, but infection alone is not thought to be causative.
  • The pathogenesis is thought to involve impaired host defenses and defective phagocytosis.
  • The size of the lesions can range from a few millimeters to several centimeters. Plaques can extend into the distal ureters.
  • Biopsy is essential for appropriate conservative management.
  • Treatment regimens include antibiotics, ascorbic acid, and a cholinergic agonist.

[edit] Imaging Findings for Bladder malacoplakia

  • Imaging characteristics of malacoplakia are varied.
  • There may be multiple, polypoid, vascular, solid masses or circumferential wall thickening, associated with Vesicoureteral reflux and dilatation of the upper urinary tract.
  • Malacoplakia may be extremely aggressive, invading the perivesical space, and it can even cause bone destruction.

[edit] Images

Patient #1

[edit] See Also

[edit] External Links

[edit] References for Bladder malacoplakia