Pericardial effusion

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[edit] Discussion

[edit] Complications

Cardiac tamponade

[edit] Etiologies

  • Infectious
    • Viral
    • Pyogenic
    • Tuberculous
    • Fungal
    • Other infections (syphilitic, protozoal, parasitic)
  • Noninfectious
    • Idiopathic
    • Uremia
    • Neoplasia
    • Acute myocardial infarction
    • Postirradiation
    • Aortic dissection (with leakage into pericardial sac)
    • Trauma
    • Sarcoidosis
  • Hypersensitivity or autoimmunity related
    • Rheumatic fever
    • Collagen vascular disease
    • Drug-induced

[edit] Imaging Findings

[edit] CT

  • CT attenuation measurements also enable the initial characterization of pericardial fluid.
  • A fluid collection with attenuation close to that of water is likely to be a simple effusion.
  • Attenuation greater than that of water suggests malignancy, hemopericardium, purulent exudate, or effusion associated with hypothyroidism.
  • Pericardial effusions with low attenuation also have been reported in cases of chylopericardium.

[edit] MRI

  • The appearance of pericardial fluid is different on SE and GRE cine MR images.
  • Nonhemorrhagic fluid has low signal intensity on T1-weighted SE images and high intensity on GRE cine images. Conversely, hemorrhagic effusion is characterized by high signal intensity on T1-weighted SE images and low intensity on GRE cine images.
  • When an effusion is secondary to malignancy, an irregularly thickened pericardium or pericardial nodularity may be depicted on MR images.

[edit] Images

Patient #1

[edit] See Also

[edit] External Links

[edit] References